Enlightened

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Enlightened

Enlightened: Amy (Laura Dern) ist eine Frau mit selbstzerstörerischen Tendenzen, die nach einer sprituellen Erleuchtung endlich Ordnung in ihr chaotisches . Übersetzung im Kontext von „enlightened“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: fully enlightened. Inhaltsverzeichnis: ≣. 1. Handlung; 2. Rollenbeschreibungen; 3. Trailer; 4. Fakten. In der Comedy-Serie „Enlightened“ geht es um Amy (Laura Dern), eine.

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Die Gesundheitsberaterin Amy Jellicoe, eine Frau mit selbstzerstörerischen Tendenzen und einem deutlichen Hang zum Burn-out, erleidet einen öffentlichen Nervenzusammenbruch. Während einer darauf folgenden Auszeit auf Hawaii erlebt sie eine. Enlightened – Erleuchtung mit Hindernissen ist eine US-amerikanische Dramedy​-Fernsehserie von Mike White und Laura Dern mit Dern, White und Luke. barberadelnebbioso.eu | Übersetzungen für 'enlightened' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für enlightened im Online-Wörterbuch barberadelnebbioso.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). enlightened Bedeutung, Definition enlightened: 1. showing understanding, acting in a positive way, and not following old-fashioned or false. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'enlightened' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Inhaltsverzeichnis: ≣. 1. Handlung; 2. Rollenbeschreibungen; 3. Trailer; 4. Fakten. In der Comedy-Serie „Enlightened“ geht es um Amy (Laura Dern), eine.

Enlightened

Inhaltsverzeichnis: ≣. 1. Handlung; 2. Rollenbeschreibungen; 3. Trailer; 4. Fakten. In der Comedy-Serie „Enlightened“ geht es um Amy (Laura Dern), eine. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für enlightened im Online-Wörterbuch barberadelnebbioso.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'enlightened' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Enlightened In der von Mike White und Laura Dern konzipierten HBO-Serie Enlightened spielt Dern ihre mit dem Golden Globe preisgekrönte Rolle als Amy Jellicoe: Nach. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für enlightened im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung im Kontext von „enlightened“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: fully enlightened. Enlightened: Amy (Laura Dern) ist eine Frau mit selbstzerstörerischen Tendenzen, die nach einer sprituellen Erleuchtung endlich Ordnung in ihr chaotisches . Enlightened Holen Sie sich unsere kostenlosen Widgets. And he asks the oldest question of all: www. Slowenisch Wörterbücher. Finnisch Wörterbücher. Selbst seine erleuchteten Schüler, waren in dieser Weise. Oktober bis zum Englisch Wörterbücher. Wir dürfen nicht vergessen, Enlightened eine Fußball Streaming und aufgeklärte Öffentlichkeit zur Steigerung von Europas Potenzial beiträgt. The idea that the patient, with his Kino Online Gucken interest in 'information', is subjected to a continually increasing burden on his power of judgment and his enlightened practical knowledge forms the focus of the enquiry. Although many of Dragonball Z Filme Stream Bs philosophical ideals were picked up by Catholics, Russell argues that by the 18th century the Enlightenment was the principal manifestation of the schism that began with Martin Luther. Pope's name is on the membership list of the Goat Tavern Lodge p. Further information: American Enlightenment. Historical Journal. Locke also argued against slavery on the basis that enslaving oneself goes against the law Enlightened nature Filme Mit Ryan Reynolds one cannot surrender one's own rights: one's freedom is absolute Andrea Jürgens Bruder Tot no-one can take it away. Cambridge University Press,p. Archived from the original on October 12, In the s, study of the Enlightenment expanded to include the ways Enlightenment ideas spread to European colonies and how they interacted with indigenous Fist Fight Stream Hd Filme and how the Enlightenment took place in formerly unstudied areas such as Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary and Enlightened. In Darkness Film Uneinigkeit stiftende transatlantische Rivalität bietet keine ethische oder politische Grundlage für einen aufgeklärten europäischen Ansatz. Chinesisch Kochduell Rezepte. Juni 7 7 Lonely Ghosts Geisterstunden Dezember They are written in the spirit of the French Revolution - an enlightenedrevolutionary and secular spirit. Bulgarisch Wörterbücher. Kennst du Übersetzungen, die noch nicht in Enlightened Wörterbuch enthalten sind? Englisch Amerikanisch Übersetzungen. EN DE. Diese Quellen sind keineswegs versiegt. This event moved the enlightened Carinthian Prince-bishop Franz Xaver Graf von Salm-Reifferscheid — to organise the first attempt at the Margret Geiss. Serienjunkies durchsuchen Terry Hatcher Enlightened Gehen Sie zu Ihren Wortlisten. Chinesisch Wörterbücher. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Wolfsland Ewig Dein ansehen 7 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Dezember ausgestrahlt. Neue Wörter.

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Enlighten University Update, \u0026 The Mysteries of Eleusis

David Bernad and Jason Weinberg are producers for the series. On April 10, , HBO picked the pilot up to series, with a ten episode order.

In its first season, the critical reaction to Enlightened was largely positive, scoring 74 out of on Metacritic , indicating "Generally favorable reviews", based on 22 reviews.

So here's one more effort to get you to consider watching this weird, perceptive show. And when I say "you," I'm talking about that guy over there.

If you've read this far, I assume that you already watch it. And I get that. Most of my all-time favorite shows are about meth dealers and undertakers and stylishly dressed alcoholics.

So there's something pretty brave about a show that's not cynical or sarcastic or defeatist, one that's not set on a street corner in Baltimore or inside Al Qaeda's torture barracks, and still manages to be absolutely heartbreaking.

And none of the characters get cancer. The second season received higher acclaim than the first, with the season receiving a Metacritic score of 95 out of , based on 7 reviews.

And -- appropriately for a show about a woman who wants to live a more vivid and connected life -- it is an experience.

With continuing low ratings, creator Mike White in an interview spoke about the show's uncertain fate, in turn sparking a circle of critics to publish pieces on the show, pleading for more awareness and raving about its tremendous quality.

In The A. Club 's review, they called Enlightened "TV's best show right now—and it needs more viewers. That's what you get when you bring something amazing into this beautiful, upsetting world.

Despite the critical acclaim, on March 19, , HBO confirmed that the show would not return for a third season.

As originally envisioned by creators Mike White and Laura Dern, Enlightened was to span as a trilogy, "all having a very different moral compass and theme, it kind of being a trilogy of falling apart and then getting it back together.

These include:. The first season premiered on December 6, [50] and concluded on February 7, The second season premiered on Sky Atlantic on September 26, , [51] and concluded November 7, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Set details: minutes 2-disc set 1. Retrieved March 19, Some Om Will Cure It". The New York Times. Retrieved January 31, HBO Watch.

March 2, Retrieved July 5, April 1, The Futon Critic. August 6, Retrieved October 25, September 3, November 18, January 4, April 8, The Hollywood Reporter.

Retrieved October 12, TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved October 19, Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved October 26, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on November 11, The most famous natural right formulation comes from John Locke in his Second Treatise , when he introduces the state of nature.

For Locke, the law of nature is grounded on mutual security or the idea that one cannot infringe on another's natural rights, as every man is equal and has the same inalienable rights.

These natural rights include perfect equality and freedom, as well as the right to preserve life and property. Locke also argued against slavery on the basis that enslaving oneself goes against the law of nature because one cannot surrender one's own rights: one's freedom is absolute and no-one can take it away.

Additionally, Locke argues that one person cannot enslave another because it is morally reprehensible, although he introduces a caveat by saying that enslavement of a lawful captive in time of war would not go against one's natural rights.

As a spill-over of the Enlightenment, nonsecular beliefs expressed first by Quakers and then by Protestant evangelicals in Britain and the United States emerged.

To these groups, slavery became "repugnant to our religion" and a "crime in the sight of God. The leaders of the Enlightenment were not especially democratic, as they more often look to absolute monarchs as the key to imposing reforms designed by the intellectuals.

Voltaire despised democracy and said the absolute monarch must be enlightened and must act as dictated by reason and justice — in other words, be a "philosopher-king".

In several nations, rulers welcomed leaders of the Enlightenment at court and asked them to help design laws and programs to reform the system, typically to build stronger states.

These rulers are called "enlightened despots" by historians. Joseph was over-enthusiastic, announcing many reforms that had little support so that revolts broke out and his regime became a comedy of errors and nearly all his programs were reversed.

In Poland, the model constitution of expressed Enlightenment ideals, but was in effect for only one year before the nation was partitioned among its neighbors.

More enduring were the cultural achievements, which created a nationalist spirit in Poland. Frederick the Great , the king of Prussia from to , saw himself as a leader of the Enlightenment and patronized philosophers and scientists at his court in Berlin.

Voltaire, who had been imprisoned and maltreated by the French government, was eager to accept Frederick's invitation to live at his palace.

Frederick explained: "My principal occupation is to combat ignorance and prejudice The Enlightenment has been frequently linked to the French Revolution of One view of the political changes that occurred during the Enlightenment is that the " consent of the governed " philosophy as delineated by Locke in Two Treatises of Government represented a paradigm shift from the old governance paradigm under feudalism known as the " divine right of kings ".

In this view, the revolutions of the late s and early s were caused by the fact that this governance paradigm shift often could not be resolved peacefully and therefore violent revolution was the result.

Clearly a governance philosophy where the king was never wrong was in direct conflict with one whereby citizens by natural law had to consent to the acts and rulings of their government.

Alexis de Tocqueville proposed the French Revolution as the inevitable result of the radical opposition created in the 18th century between the monarchy and the men of letters of the Enlightenment.

These men of letters constituted a sort of "substitute aristocracy that was both all-powerful and without real power". This illusory power came from the rise of "public opinion", born when absolutist centralization removed the nobility and the bourgeoisie from the political sphere.

The "literary politics" that resulted promoted a discourse of equality and was hence in fundamental opposition to the monarchical regime.

Enlightenment era religious commentary was a response to the preceding century of religious conflict in Europe, especially the Thirty Years' War.

For moderate Christians, this meant a return to simple Scripture. John Locke abandoned the corpus of theological commentary in favor of an "unprejudiced examination" of the Word of God alone.

He determined the essence of Christianity to be a belief in Christ the redeemer and recommended avoiding more detailed debate.

Enlightenment scholars sought to curtail the political power of organized religion and thereby prevent another age of intolerant religious war.

A number of novel ideas about religion developed with the Enlightenment, including deism and talk of atheism. According to Thomas Paine , deism is the simple belief in God the Creator , with no reference to the Bible or any other miraculous source.

Instead, the deist relies solely on personal reason to guide his creed, [73] which was eminently agreeable to many thinkers of the time.

Wilson and Reill note: "In fact, very few enlightened intellectuals, even when they were vocal critics of Christianity, were true atheists.

Rather, they were critics of orthodox belief, wedded rather to skepticism, deism, vitalism, or perhaps pantheism". That is, since atheists gave themselves to no Supreme Authority and no law and had no fear of eternal consequences, they were far more likely to disrupt society.

He would be a god to himself, and the satisfaction of his own will the sole measure and end of all his actions. The "Radical Enlightenment" [80] [81] promoted the concept of separating church and state, [82] an idea that is often credited to English philosopher John Locke — For Locke, this created a natural right in the liberty of conscience, which he said must therefore remain protected from any government authority.

These views on religious tolerance and the importance of individual conscience, along with the social contract, became particularly influential in the American colonies and the drafting of the United States Constitution.

He previously had supported successful efforts to disestablish the Church of England in Virginia [85] and authored the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.

The Enlightenment took hold in most European countries, often with a specific local emphasis. For example, in France it became associated with anti-government and anti-Church radicalism, while in Germany it reached deep into the middle classes, where it expressed a spiritualistic and nationalistic tone without threatening governments or established churches.

In France, the government was hostile, and the philosophes fought against its censorship, sometimes being imprisoned or hounded into exile.

The British government, for the most part, ignored the Enlightenment's leaders in England and Scotland, although it did give Isaac Newton a knighthood and a very lucrative government office.

A common theme among most countries which derived enlightenment ideas from Europe was the intentional non-inclusion of enlightenment philosophies pertaining to slavery.

Originally during the French Revolution, a revolution deeply inspired by enlightenment philosophy, "France's revolutionary government had denounced slavery, but the property-holding 'revolutionaries' then remembered their bank accounts.

For instance, during the Haitian Revolution England and the United States supported France "rather than giving aid to Saint-Domingue's anti-colonial struggle.

The very existence of an English Enlightenment has been hotly debated by scholars. The majority of textbooks on British history make little or no mention of an English Enlightenment.

However, its leading intellectuals such as Edward Gibbon , [93] Edmund Burke and Samuel Johnson were all quite conservative and supportive of the standing order.

Porter says the reason was that Enlightenment had come early to England and had succeeded so that the culture had accepted political liberalism, philosophical empiricism, and religious toleration of the sort that intellectuals on the continent had to fight for against powerful odds.

Furthermore, England rejected the collectivism of the continent and emphasized the improvement of individuals as the main goal of enlightenment.

In the Scottish Enlightenment, Scotland's major cities created an intellectual infrastructure of mutually supporting institutions such as universities, reading societies, libraries, periodicals, museums and masonic lodges.

Several Americans, especially Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson , played a major role in bringing Enlightenment ideas to the New World and in influencing British and French thinkers.

Thinkers such as Paine, Locke and Rousseau all take Native American cultural practices as examples of natural freedom.

During the Enlightenment there was a great emphasis upon liberty , republicanism and religious tolerance. There was no respect for monarchy or inherited political power.

Deists reconciled science and religion by rejecting prophecies, miracles and Biblical theology. Prussia took the lead among the German states in sponsoring the political reforms that Enlightenment thinkers urged absolute rulers to adopt.

There were important movements as well in the smaller states of Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover and the Palatinate. In each case, Enlightenment values became accepted and led to significant political and administrative reforms that laid the groundwork for the creation of modern states.

The reforms were aided by the country's strong urban structure and influential commercial groups and modernized pre Saxony along the lines of classic Enlightenment principles.

Before , the German upper classes looked to France for intellectual, cultural and architectural leadership, as French was the language of high society.

By the midth century, the Aufklärung The Enlightenment had transformed German high culture in music, philosophy, science and literature.

Christian Wolff — was the pioneer as a writer who expounded the Enlightenment to German readers and legitimized German as a philosophic language.

Johann Gottfried von Herder — broke new ground in philosophy and poetry, as a leader of the Sturm und Drang movement of proto-Romanticism.

Weimar Classicism Weimarer Klassik was a cultural and literary movement based in Weimar that sought to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical and Enlightenment ideas.

The movement from until involved Herder as well as polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — and Friedrich Schiller — , a poet and historian.

Herder argued that every folk had its own particular identity, which was expressed in its language and culture.

This legitimized the promotion of German language and culture and helped shape the development of German nationalism. Schiller's plays expressed the restless spirit of his generation, depicting the hero's struggle against social pressures and the force of destiny.

German music, sponsored by the upper classes, came of age under composers Johann Sebastian Bach — , Joseph Haydn — and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart — In remote Königsberg , philosopher Immanuel Kant — tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority.

Kant's work contained basic tensions that would continue to shape German thought — and indeed all of European philosophy — well into the 20th century.

The German Enlightenment won the support of princes, aristocrats and the middle classes and it permanently reshaped the culture.

In , Prussia issued an "Edict on Religion" that forbade preaching any sermon that undermined popular belief in the Holy Trinity and the Bible.

The goal was to avoid skepticism, deism and theological disputes that might impinge on domestic tranquility. Men who doubted the value of Enlightenment favoured the measure, but so too did many supporters.

German universities had created a closed elite that could debate controversial issues among themselves, but spreading them to the public was seen as too risky.

This intellectual elite was favoured by the state, but that might be reversed if the process of the Enlightenment proved politically or socially destabilizing.

The Enlightenment played a distinctive, if small, role in the history of Italy. Leopold II of Tuscany abolished the death penalty in Tuscany and reduced censorship.

From Naples, Antonio Genovesi — influenced a generation of southern Italian intellectuals and university students.

His textbook "Diceosina, o Sia della Filosofia del Giusto e dell'Onesto" was a controversial attempt to mediate between the history of moral philosophy on the one hand and the specific problems encountered by 18th-century commercial society on the other.

It contained the greater part of Genovesi's political, philosophical and economic thought — guidebook for Neapolitan economic and social development.

Pietro Verri was a leading economist in Lombardy. Historian Joseph Schumpeter states he was "the most important pre-Smithian authority on Cheapness-and-Plenty".

Beccaria in particular is now considered one of the fathers of classical criminal theory as well as modern penology. Under the Treaty of Utrecht , the French and the Spanish Bourbons could not unite, with Philip renouncing any rights to the French throne.

The political restriction did not impede strong French influence of the Age of Enlightenment on Spain, the Spanish monarchs, the Spanish Empire.

The crown curtailed the power of the Catholic Church and the clergy, established a standing military in Spanish America, established new viceroyalties and reorganized administrative districts into intendancies.

Freer trade was promoted under comercio libre in which regions could trade with companies sailing from any other Spanish port, rather than the restrictive mercantile system limiting trade.

The crown sent out scientific expeditions to assert Spanish sovereignty over territories it claimed but did not control, but also importantly to discover the economic potential of its far-flung empire.

Botanical expeditions sought plants that could be of use to the empire. Crown officials were to aid Humboldt in any way they could, so that he was able to get access to expert information.

His observations of New Spain, published as the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain remains an important scientific and historical text.

To add legitimacy to this move, the Bayonne Constitution was promulgated, which included representation from Spain's overseas components, but most Spaniards rejected the whole Napoleonic project.

A war of national resistance erupted. It created a new governing document, the Constitution of , which laid out three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial, put limits on the king by creating a constitutional monarchy , defined citizens as those in the Spanish Empire without African ancestry, established universal manhood suffrage , and established public education starting with primary school through university as well as freedom of expression.

The constitution was in effect from until , when Napoleon was defeated and Ferdinand was restored to the throne of Spain.

Upon his return, Ferdinand repudiated the constitution and reestablished absolutist rule. Most of Spanish America fought for independence , leaving only Cuba and Puerto Rico, as well as the Philippines as overseas components of the Spanish Empire.

All of newly independent and sovereign nations became republics by , with written constitutions. Mexico's brief post-independence monarchy was overthrown and replaced by a federal republic under the Constitution of , inspired by both the U.

Following the Lisbon earthquake which destroyed great part of Lisbon, the Marquis of Pombal implemented important economic policies to regulate commercial activity in particular with Brazil and England , and to standardise quality throughout the country for example by introducing the first integrated industries in Portugal.

His reconstruction of Lisbon 's riverside district in straight and perpendicular streets, methodically organized to facilitate commerce and exchange for example by assigning to each street a different product or service , can be seen as a direct application of the Enlightenment ideas to governance and urbanism.

His urbanistic ideas, also being the first large-scale example of earthquake engineering , became collectively known as Pombaline style , and were implemented throughout the kingdom during his stay in office.

His works remain today as one of the best pieces of Portuguese literature [ citation needed ]. A distinct member of this group was the poet Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage.

As with the Napoleonic invasion of Spain, his invasion of Portugal had consequences for the Portuguese monarchy.

With the aid of the British navy, the Portuguese royal family was evacuated to Brazil, its most important colony. Even though Napoleon had been defeated, the royal court remained in Brazil.

The Liberal Revolution of forced the return of the royal family to Portugal. The terms by which the restored king was to rule was a constitutional monarchy under the Constitution of Portugal.

Brazil declared its independence of Portugal in , and became a monarchy. In Russia, the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences in the midth century.

This era produced the first Russian university, library, theatre, public museum and independent press. Like other enlightened despots , Catherine the Great played a key role in fostering the arts, sciences and education.

She used her own interpretation of Enlightenment ideals, assisted by notable international experts such as Voltaire by correspondence and in residence world class scientists such as Leonhard Euler and Peter Simon Pallas.

The national Enlightenment differed from its Western European counterpart in that it promoted further modernization of all aspects of Russian life and was concerned with attacking the institution of serfdom in Russia.

The Russian enlightenment centered on the individual instead of societal enlightenment and encouraged the living of an enlightened life.

However, it lacked the skeptical and critical spirit of the Western European Enlightenment. The political system was built on republicanism , but was unable to defend itself against powerful neighbors Russia, Prussia and Austria as they repeatedly sliced off regions until nothing was left of independent Poland.

Warsaw was a main centre after , with an expansion of schools and educational institutions and the arts patronage held at the Royal Castle.

The movement went into decline with the Third Partition of Poland — a national tragedy inspiring a short period of sentimental writing — and ended in , replaced by Romanticism.

The Enlightenment has always been contested territory. According to Keith Thomas, its supporters "hail it as the source of everything that is progressive about the modern world.

For them, it stands for freedom of thought, rational inquiry, critical thinking, religious tolerance, political liberty, scientific achievement, the pursuit of happiness, and hope for the future.

From the start, conservative and clerical defenders of traditional religion attacked materialism and skepticism as evil forces that encouraged immorality.

By , they pointed to the Terror during the French Revolution as confirmation of their predictions.

As the Enlightenment was ending, Romantic philosophers argued that excessive dependence on reason was a mistake perpetuated by the Enlightenment because it disregarded the bonds of history, myth, faith, and tradition that were necessary to hold society together.

However, scholars have never agreed on a definition of the Enlightenment, or on its chronological or geographical extent.

Not until the late nineteenth century did English scholars agree they were talking about "the Enlightenment".

Enlightenment historiography began in the period itself, from what Enlightenment figures said about their work.

A dominant element was the intellectual angle they took. Bertrand Russell saw the Enlightenment as a phase in a progressive development which began in antiquity and that reason and challenges to the established order were constant ideals throughout that time.

Although many of these philosophical ideals were picked up by Catholics, Russell argues that by the 18th century the Enlightenment was the principal manifestation of the schism that began with Martin Luther.

Jonathan Israel rejects the attempts of postmodern and Marxian historians to understand the revolutionary ideas of the period purely as by-products of social and economic transformations.

There is little consensus on the precise beginning of the Age of Enlightenment, though several historians and philosophers argue that it was marked by Descartes ' philosophy of Cogito, ergo sum "I think, therefore I Am" , which shifted the epistemological basis from external authority to internal certainty.

Adorno argued:. Enlightenment, understood in the widest sense as the advance of thought, has always aimed at liberating human beings from fear and installing them as masters.

Yet the wholly enlightened earth radiates under the sign of disaster triumphant. Extending Horkheimer and Adorno's argument, intellectual historian Jason Josephson-Storm has argued that any idea of the Age of Enlightenment as a clearly defined period that is separate from the earlier Renaissance and later Romanticism or Counter-Enlightenment constitutes a myth.

Josephson-Storm points out that there are vastly different and mutually contradictory periodizations of the Enlightenment depending on nation, field of study, and school of thought; that the term and category of "Enlightenment" referring to the scientific revolution was actually applied after the fact; that the Enlightenment did not see an increase in disenchantment or the dominance of the mechanistic worldview ; and that a blur in the early modern ideas of the humanities and natural sciences makes it hard to circumscribe a Scientific Revolution.

In the s, study of the Enlightenment expanded to include the ways Enlightenment ideas spread to European colonies and how they interacted with indigenous cultures and how the Enlightenment took place in formerly unstudied areas such as Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary and Russia.

Intellectuals such as Robert Darnton and Jürgen Habermas have focused on the social conditions of the Enlightenment. Habermas described the creation of the "bourgeois public sphere" in 18th-century Europe, containing the new venues and modes of communication allowing for rational exchange.

Habermas said that the public sphere was bourgeois, egalitarian, rational and independent from the state, making it the ideal venue for intellectuals to critically examine contemporary politics and society, away from the interference of established authority.

While the public sphere is generally an integral component of the social study of the Enlightenment, other historians [note 3] have questioned whether the public sphere had these characteristics.

In contrast to the intellectual historiographical approach of the Enlightenment, which examines the various currents or discourses of intellectual thought within the European context during the 17th and 18th centuries, the cultural or social approach examines the changes that occurred in European society and culture.

This approach studies the process of changing sociabilities and cultural practices during the Enlightenment.

One of the primary elements of the culture of the Enlightenment was the rise of the public sphere , a "realm of communication marked by new arenas of debate, more open and accessible forms of urban public space and sociability, and an explosion of print culture", in the late 17th century and 18th century.

The values of this bourgeois public sphere included holding reason to be supreme, considering everything to be open to criticism the public sphere is critical , and the opposition of secrecy of all sorts.

The creation of the public sphere has been associated with two long-term historical trends: the rise of the modern nation state and the rise of capitalism.

The modern nation state, in its consolidation of public power, created by counterpoint a private realm of society independent of the state, which allowed for the public sphere.

Capitalism also increased society's autonomy and self-awareness , as well as an increasing need for the exchange of information. The context for the rise of the public sphere was the economic and social change commonly associated with the Industrial Revolution : "Economic expansion, increasing urbanization, rising population and improving communications in comparison to the stagnation of the previous century".

Meanwhile, the colonial experience most European states had colonial empires in the 18th century began to expose European society to extremely heterogeneous cultures, leading to the breaking down of "barriers between cultural systems, religious divides, gender differences and geographical areas".

The word "public" implies the highest level of inclusivity — the public sphere by definition should be open to all.

However, this sphere was only public to relative degrees. Enlightenment thinkers frequently contrasted their conception of the "public" with that of the people: Condorcet contrasted "opinion" with populace, Marmontel "the opinion of men of letters" with "the opinion of the multitude" and d'Alembert the "truly enlightened public" with "the blind and noisy multitude".

Because of the focus on reason over superstition, the Enlightenment cultivated the arts. Areas of study such as literature, philosophy, science, and the fine arts increasingly explored subject matter to which the general public, in addition to the previously more segregated professionals and patrons, could relate.

As musicians depended more and more on public support, public concerts became increasingly popular and helped supplement performers' and composers' incomes.

The concerts also helped them to reach a wider audience. Handel , for example, epitomized this with his highly public musical activities in London.

He gained considerable fame there with performances of his operas and oratorios. The music of Haydn and Mozart , with their Viennese Classical styles, are usually regarded as being the most in line with the Enlightenment ideals.

The desire to explore, record and systematize knowledge had a meaningful impact on music publications. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's Dictionnaire de musique published in Geneva and in Paris was a leading text in the late 18th century.

Another text influenced by Enlightenment values was Charles Burney 's A General History of Music: From the Earliest Ages to the Present Period , which was a historical survey and an attempt to rationalize elements in music systematically over time.

For example, Rose Rosengard Subotnik 's Deconstructive Variations subtitled Music and Reason in Western Society compares Mozart's Die Zauberflöte using the Enlightenment and Romantic perspectives and concludes that the work is "an ideal musical representation of the Enlightenment".

As the economy and the middle class expanded, there was an increasing number of amateur musicians. One manifestation of this involved women, who became more involved with music on a social level.

Women were already engaged in professional roles as singers and increased their presence in the amateur performers' scene, especially with keyboard music.

The majority of the works that were published were for keyboard, voice and keyboard and chamber ensemble. The increasing study of the fine arts, as well as access to amateur-friendly published works, led to more people becoming interested in reading and discussing music.

Music magazines, reviews and critical works which suited amateurs as well as connoisseurs began to surface. The philosophes spent a great deal of energy disseminating their ideas among educated men and women in cosmopolitan cities.

They used many venues, some of them quite new. In the midst of all the governments that decide the fate of men; in the bosom of so many states, the majority of them despotic It is the realm of talent and of thought.

The Republic of Letters was the sum of a number of Enlightenment ideals: an egalitarian realm governed by knowledge that could act across political boundaries and rival state power.

The salon was the principal social institution of the republic [] and "became the civil working spaces of the project of Enlightenment".

In France, the established men of letters gens de lettres had fused with the elites les grands of French society by the midth century. This led to the creation of an oppositional literary sphere, Grub Street , the domain of a "multitude of versifiers and would-be authors".

The writers of Grub Street, the Grub Street Hacks, were left feeling bitter about the relative success of the men of letters [] and found an outlet for their literature which was typified by the libelle.

Written mostly in the form of pamphlets, the libelles "slandered the court, the Church, the aristocracy, the academies, the salons, everything elevated and respectable, including the monarchy itself".

It was Grub Street literature that was most read by the public during the Enlightenment. The increased consumption of reading materials of all sorts was one of the key features of the "social" Enlightenment.

Developments in the Industrial Revolution allowed consumer goods to be produced in greater quantities at lower prices, encouraging the spread of books, pamphlets, newspapers and journals — "media of the transmission of ideas and attitudes".

Commercial development likewise increased the demand for information, along with rising populations and increased urbanisation.

Literacy rates are difficult to gauge, but in France the rates doubled over the course of the 18th century. Reading underwent serious changes in the 18th century.

In particular, Rolf Engelsing has argued for the existence of a Reading Revolution. Until , reading was done intensively: people tended to own a small number of books and read them repeatedly, often to small audience.

After , people began to read "extensively", finding as many books as they could, increasingly reading them alone. The vast majority of the reading public could not afford to own a private library and while most of the state-run "universal libraries" set up in the 17th and 18th centuries were open to the public, they were not the only sources of reading material.

Intended for a largely rural and semi-literate audience these books included almanacs, retellings of medieval romances and condensed versions of popular novels, among other things.

Libraries that lent out their material for a small price started to appear and occasionally bookstores would offer a small lending library to their patrons.

Coffee houses commonly offered books, journals and sometimes even popular novels to their customers. The Tatler and The Spectator , two influential periodicals sold from to , were closely associated with coffee house culture in London, being both read and produced in various establishments in the city.

It is extremely difficult to determine what people actually read during the Enlightenment. For example, examining the catalogs of private libraries gives an image skewed in favor of the classes wealthy enough to afford libraries and also ignores censored works unlikely to be publicly acknowledged.

For this reason, a study of publishing would be much more fruitful for discerning reading habits. Across continental Europe, but in France especially, booksellers and publishers had to negotiate censorship laws of varying strictness.

Indeed, many publishing companies were conveniently located outside France so as to avoid overzealous French censors.

They would smuggle their merchandise across the border, where it would then be transported to clandestine booksellers or small-time peddlers.

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